Wayne Sandholtz

John A. McCone Chair in International Relations and Professor of International Relations and Law
Pronouns He / Him / His Email wayne.sandholtz@usc.edu Office VKC 330 Office Phone (213) 740-9057

Education

  • Ph.D. Political Science, University of California, Berkeley, 5/1989
  • M.A. Political Science, University of California, Berkeley, 6/1983
  • Tenure Track Appointments

    • Professor, University of California – Irvine, 2002 – 2012
    • Assistant Professor, University of California, Irvine, 1992 – 1994
    • Assistant Professor, Scripps College, 1989 – 1992
    • Associate Professor, University of California, Irvine, 1994 – 2002
  • Summary Statement of Research Interests

    My research projects center on the development and effects of international norms, law, and institutions. The dynamic processes of international norm change in particular have held my attention. The European Union, corruption, the effects of globalization on women, wartime plunder, and human rights treaties have offered empirical domains in which to explore theories of norm development, diffusion, and consequences. I am currently building new datasets on the globalization of law through domestic court references to international and foreign legal materials; the political question doctrine as applied in U.S. federal courts; and the substantive obligations contained in global human rights treaties. Ongoing projects focus on the regional human rights courts; the International Criminal Court; the pattern of adhesion to global human rights treaties; and international norm abandonment and replacement.

    Research Keywords

    International relations, international law, international norms, international institutions, human rights

  • Book

    • Sandholtz, W., Whytock, C. A. (2017). Research Handbook on the Politics of International Law. Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar.
    • Sandholtz, W., Stiles, K. W. (2009). International Norms and Cycles of Change. Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press.
    • Sandholtz, W. (2007). Prohibiting Plunder: How Norms Change. New York: Oxford University Press.
    • Stone Sweet, A., Sandholtz, W., Fligstein, N. (2001). The Institutionalization of Europe. Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press.
    • Sandholtz, W., Stone Sweet, A. (1998). European Integration and Supranational Governance. Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press.
    • Sandholtz, W. (1992). High-Tech Europe : The Politics of International Cooperation. Berkeley: University of California Press.
    • Sandholtz, W., Borrus, M., Zysman, J., Conca, K., Stowsky, J., Vogel, S., Weber, S. (1992). The Highest Stakes : The Economic Foundations of the Next Security System. New York: Oxford University Press.

    Book Chapter

    • Sandholtz, W. (2022). Authoritarianism, International Human Rights, and Legal Change. Is the International Legal Order Unraveling? pp. 363-96. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    • Rapp, K., Sandholtz, W. (2020). International Human Rights Law: Progress and Prospects. pp. 51-74. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.
    • Sandholtz, W., Feldman, A. (2019). The Trans-regional Construction of Human Rights. pp. 107-24. Cheltenham, UK: Contesting Human Rights: Norms, Institutions and PracticeEdward Elgar.
    • Sandholtz, W. (2017). Expanding Rights: Norm Innovation in the European and Inter-American Courts of Human Rights. Expanding Human Rights: 21st Century Norms and Gov Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar.
    • Sandholtz, W. (2017). International Norm Change. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    • Sandholtz, W. (2013). Treaties, Constitutions, and Courts: The Critical Combination. The Politics of the Globalization of Law pp. 29-46. New York: Routledge.
    • Sandholtz, W., Stone Sweet, A. (2012). Neo-Functionalism and Supranational Governance. The Oxford Handbook of the European Union pp. 18-33. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    • Sandholtz, W. (2009). The Iraq War and International Law. Routledge Handbook of International Law pp. 222-238. London: Routledge.
    • Sandholtz, W. (2009). Explaining International Norm Change. International Norms and Cycles of Change pp. 1 – 26. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    • Sandholtz, W. (2008). Creating Authority: The International Tribunals. The Institution of International Authority: Law, pp. 131-153. London: Routledge.
    • Gray, M., Sandholtz, W. (2005). International Determinants of National Corruption Levels. Global Corruption Report 2005 pp. 268-270. London: Pluto Press.
    • Sandholtz, W., Sweet, A. S. (2004). Law, Politics, and International Governance. The Politics of International Law pp. 238-71. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    • Sandholtz, W. (2002). Humanitarian Intervention: Global Enforcement of Human Rights?. Globalization and Human Rights pp. 201-225. Berkeley: University of California Press.
    • Love, W., Sandholtz, W. (2001). David and Goliath: Airbus vs. Boeing in Asia. Winning in Asia, European Style: Market and Nonmar pp. 187-224. New York: Palgrave.
    • Stone Sweet, A., Fligstein, N., Sandholtz, W. (2001). The Institutionalization of European Space. The Institutionalization of Europe pp. 1-28. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    • Turnbull, P., Sandholtz, W. (2001). Policing and Immigration: The Creation of New Policy Spaces. The Institutionalization of Europe pp. 194-220. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    • Sandholtz, W. (1999). Globalization and the Evolution of Rules. Globalization and Governance pp. 77-102. London: Routledge.
    • Sandholtz, W. (1998). The Emergence of a Supranational Telecommunications Regime. European Integration and Supranational Governance pp. 134-163. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    • Sandholtz, W. (1998). L’union Monétaire: Une Route Semée d’embûches sans Espoir de Retour. Entre Union et Nations: L’état en Europe pp. 191-226. Paris: Presses de Sciences Po.
    • Stone Sweet, A., Sandholtz, W. (1998). Integration, Supranational Governance, and the Institutionalization of the European Polity. European Integration and Supranational Governance pp. 1-26. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    • Sandholtz, W., Smith, M. (1995). Institutions and Leadership: Germany, Maastricht, and the ERM Crisis. The State of the European Community, Vol. 3 pp. 245-265. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner.
    • Sandholtz, W. (1993). Monetary Bargains: The Treaty on EMU. The State of the European Community, Vol. 2 pp. 125-142. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner.

    Journal Article

    • Stone Sweet, A., Sandholtz, W. (2023). The Law and Politics of Transnational Rights Protection: Trusteeship, Effectiveness, De-delegation. 1 pp. 105-124.Governance. Vol. 36 (1),
    • Gonzalez-Ocantos, E., Sandholtz, W. (2022). The Sources of Resilience of International Human Rights Courts: The Case of the Inter-American System. 1 pp. 95-131.Law & Social Inquiry. Vol. 47 (1),
    • Stone Sweet, A., Sandholtz, W., Andenas, M. (2022). The Failure to Destroy the Authority of the European Court of Human Rights: 2010-2018. pp. 244-77.Journal of the Law and Practice of International Courts and International Tribunals. Vol. 21,
    • Gonzalez-Ocantos, E., Sandholtz, W. (2021). Constructing a Regional Human Rights Legal Order: The Inter-American Court, National Courts, and Judicial Dialogue, 1988–2014. 5 pp. 1559-96.International Journal of Constitutional Law. Vol. 19 (5),
    • Sandholtz, W., Stone Sweet, A., Andenas, M. (2021). Dissenting Opinions and Rights Protection in the European Court. 3 pp. 897-906.European Journal of International Law. Vol. 32 (3),
    • Sandholtz, W. (2020). Human Rights Courts and Global Constitutionalism: Coordination through Judicial Dialogue. pp. 1-26.Global Constitutionalism. Vol. First View.,
    • Sandholtz, W. (2020). The ECtHR, Transregional Dialogues and Global Constitutionalism. 32020/12/07 pp. 543-551.Global Constitutionalism/Cambridge University Press. Vol. 9 (32020/12/07),
    • Sandholtz, W., Rangel Padilla, M. (2020). Law and Politics in the Inter-American System: The Amnesty Cases. 1 pp. 151-75.Journal of Law and Courts. Vol. 8 (1),
    • Zvobgo, K., Sandholtz, W., Mulesky, S. (2020). Reserving Rights: Explaining Human Rights Treaty Reservations. 4 pp. 785-797.International Studies Quarterly. Vol. 64 (4),
    • Neumeier, S., Sandholtz, W. (2019). The Transnational Legal Ordering of the Death Penalty. 1 pp. 124-60.UC Irvine Journal of International, Transnational and Comparative Law. Vol. 4 (1),
    • Sloss, D., Sandholtz, W. (2019). Universal Human Rights and Constitutional Change. 4 pp. 1183-1262.William & Mary Bill of Rights Journal. Vol. 27 (4),
    • Sandholtz, W. (2019). Norm Contestation, Robustness, and Replacement. 1 pp. 139-46.Journal of Global Security Studies. Vol. 4 (1),
    • Sandholtz, W. (2017). Domestic Law and Human Rights Treaty Commitments: The Convention against Torture. pp. 1-19.Journal of Human Rights/Routledge.
    • Sandholtz, W. (2016). U.S. Military Assistance and Human Rights. 4 pp. 1070-1101.Human Rights Quarterly. Vol. 38 (4),
    • Sandholtz, W. (2015). A New Age of International Courts. 2 pp. 471-85.Tulsa Law Review. Vol. 51 (2),
    • Sandholtz, W. (2015). Review: ‘Lost Causes’: Agenda Vetting in Global Issue Networks and the Shaping of Human Security. 2 pp. 364-65.Political Science Quarterly. Vol. 130 (2),
    • Sandholtz, W. (2015). How Domestic Courts Use International Law. 2 pp. 595-637.Fordham International Law Journal. Vol. 38 (2),
    • Fligstein, N., Polyakova, A., Sandholtz, W. (2012). European Integration, Nationalism, and European Identity. S1 pp. 106-22.Journal of Common Market Studies. Vol. 50 (S1),
    • McGann, A., Sandholtz, W. (2012). Patterns of Death Penalty Abolition, 1960–2005: Domestic and International Factors. 2 pp. 275-289.International Studies Quarterly/Blackwell Publishing Ltd. Vol. 56 (2),
    • Sandholtz, W. (2012). Treaties, Constitutions, Court, and Human Rights. 1 pp. 17-32.Journal of Human Rights. Vol. 11 (1),
    • Sandholtz, W. (2011). Review: Integrating Europe: Informal Politics and Institutional Change. 5 pp. 1143-45.West European Politics. Vol. 34 (5),
    • Sandholtz, W. (2010). Plunder, Restitution, and International Law. 2 pp. 147-76.International Journal of Cultural Property. Vol. 17 (2),
    • Sandholtz, W. (2009). Closing Off the Torture Option. 3 pp. 589-601.Southern California Interdisciplinary Law Journal. Vol. 18 (3),
    • Sandholtz, W. (2009). Europe, the United States, and the International Criminal Court. 1 pp. 117-130.Politique Étrangère. Vol. 2009 (1),
    • Sandholtz, W. (2008). Dynamics of International Norm Change: Rules against Wartime Plunder. 1 pp. 101-31.European Journal of International Relations. Vol. 14 (1),
    • Gray, M. M., Kittilson, M. C., Sandholtz, W. (2006). Women and Globalization: A Study of 180 Countries, 1975-2000. 2 pp. 293-333.International Organization. Vol. 60 (2),
    • Sandholtz, W. (2005). The Iraqi National Museum and International Law: A Duty to Protect. 1 pp. 185-240.Columbia Journal of Transnational Law. Vol. 44 (1),
    • Sandholtz, W., Taagepera, R. (2005). Corruption, Culture, and Communism. 1 pp. 109-131.International Review of Sociology/Routledge. Vol. 15 (1),
    • Sandholtz, W., Gray, M. M. (2003). International Integration and National Corruption. 4 pp. 761-800.International Organization. Vol. 57 (4),
    • Brysk, A., Parsons, C., Sandholtz, W. (2002). After Empire: National Identities and Post-Colonial Families of Nations. 2 pp. 267-305.European Journal of International Relations. Vol. 8 (2),
    • Sandholtz, W., Love, W. (2001). Dogfight over Asia: Airbus v. Boeing. 2 pp. 135-56.Business and Politics. Vol. 3 (2),
    • Sandholtz, W., Koetzle, W. (2000). Accounting for Corruption: Economic Structure, Democracy, and Trade. 1 pp. 31-50.International Studies Quarterly. Vol. 44 (1),
    • Sandholtz, W., Stone Sweet, A. (1999). European Integration and Supranational Governance: Rejoinder to Branch and Øhrgaard. 1 pp. 144-54.Journal of European Public Policy. Vol. 6 (1),
    • Stone Sweet, A., Sandholtz, W. (1997). European Integration and Supranational Governance. 3 pp. 297-317.Journal of European Public Policy. Vol. 4 (3),
    • Sandholtz, W. (1996). Membership Matters: Limits of the Functional Approach to European Institutions. 3 pp. 404-429.Journal of Common Market Studies. Vol. 34 (3),
    • Sandholtz, W. A. (1996). Euorpe’s Montetary Malaise: Germany, Maastricht, and the ERM Crisis. 3 pp. 257-73.Review of International Studies. Vol. 22 (3),
    • Sandholtz, W. (1993). Institutions and Collective Action: The New Telecommunications in Western Europe. 2 pp. 242-70.World Politics. Vol. 45 (2),
    • Sandholtz, W. (1993). Choosing Union: Monetary Politics and Maastricht. 1 pp. 1-39.International Organization. Vol. 47 (1),
    • Sandholtz, W., Zysman, J. (1989). 1992: Recasting the European Bargain. 1 pp. 95-128.World Politics. Vol. 42 (1),

    Other

    • Sandholtz, W., Bei, Y., Caldwell, K. (2018). Backlash and International Human Rights Courts. pp. 159-178. Cheltenham, UK: Contracting Human Rights: Crisis, Accountability, and OpportunityEdward Elgar.
    • Sandholtz, W., Zysman, J. (1991). Europe as Protagonist. Berkeley,. CA: Berkeley Roundtable on the International Economy, University of California, Berkeley.
    • John A. McCone Chair in International Relations and Professor of International Relations and Law, 2012/08/16-2017/08/15
  • Committees

    • “USC General Education Reform Committee”, 2012-2013