Headshot of Wayne Sandholtz

Wayne Sandholtz

John A. McCone Chair in International Relations

Professor of International Relations and Law

Research areas:  International norms, international law, international courts, human rights

Professor Sandholtz’s CV


Research Handbook on the Politics of International Law

By Wayne Sandholtz and Christopher A. Whytock

International Norms & Cycles of Change

By Wayne Sandholtz and Kendall Stiles

Selected Articles & Chapters

Mulesky, Suzie, Wayne Sandholtz and Kelebogile Zvobgo. Forthcoming. “Do Human Rights Treaty Obligations Matter for Ratification?” Journal of Human Rights.

Stone Sweet, Alec and Wayne Sandholtz. 2023. “The Law and Politics of Transnational Rights Protection: Trusteeship, Effectiveness, De-delegation.” Governance 36(1): 105-124.

Sandholtz, Wayne. 2023. “Resurgent Authoritarianism, Rights, and Legal Change.” In Nico Krisch and Ezgi Yildiz, eds., The Many Paths of Change in International Law. 179-200. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Shaffer, Gregory and Wayne Sandholtz. 2023. “The Rule of Law in Transnational Context: Introduction to the Symposium.” UC Irvine Journal of International, Transnational, and Comparative Law 8(1): 1-4.

Sandholtz, Wayne. 2023. “Is Winter Coming? Norm Challenges and Norm Resilience.” In Heike Krieger and Andrea Liese, eds., Tracing Value Change in the International Legal Order. 41-63. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Sandholtz, Wayne. 2023. “Resurgent Authoritarianism and the International Rule of Law.” Southwestern Journal of International Law 28(2): 209-231.

Percy, Sarah V. and Wayne Sandholtz. 2022. “Why Norms Rarely Die.” European Journal of International Relations 28(4): 934-54.

Sandholtz, Wayne. 2022. “Authoritarianism, International Human Rights, and Legal Change.” In David L. Sloss, ed., Is the International Legal Order Unraveling? 363-96. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Stone Sweet, Alec, Wayne Sandholtz and Mads Andenas. 2022. “The Failure to Destroy the Authority of the European Court of Human Rights: 2010-2018.” The Law and Practice of International Courts and Tribunals 21: 244-77.

Gonzalez Ocantos, Ezequiel and Wayne Sandholtz. 2022. “The Sources of Resilience of International Human Rights Courts: The Case of the Inter-American System.” Law & Social Inquiry 47(1): 95-131.

Lentzos, Filippa, Edward P. Rybicki, Margret Engelhard, Pauline Paterson, Wayne Sandholtz and R. Guy Reeves. 2022. “Eroding Norms Over Release of Self-Spreading Viruses.” Science 375 (No. 6576, 7 January 2022): 31-33.

Stone Sweet, Alec, Wayne Sandholtz and Mads Andenas. 2021. “Dissenting Opinions and Rights Protection in the European Court.” European Journal of International Law 32(3): 897-906.

Gonzalez Ocantos, Ezequiel and Wayne Sandholtz. 2021. “Constructing a Regional Human Rights Legal Order: The Inter-American Court, National Courts, and Judicial Dialogue, 1988 – 2014.” International Journal of Constitutional Law (I-CON) 19(5): 1559-1596.

Sandholtz, Wayne. 2021. “Human Rights Courts and Global Constitutionalism: Coordination through Judicial Dialogue.” Global Constitutionalism 10:3 439-64.

Sandholtz, Wayne. 2020. “The ECtHR, Transregional Dialogues and Global Constitutionalism.” Global Constitutionalism 9(3): 543-551.

Zvobgo, Kelebogile, Wayne Sandholtz and Suzie Mulesky. 2020. “Reserving Rights: Explaining Human Rights Treaty Reservations.” International Studies Quarterly 64(4): 785-97.

Sandholtz, Wayne and Mariana Rangel Padilla. 2020. “Law and Politics in the Inter-American System: The Amnesty Cases.” Journal of Law and Courts.

Neumeier, Stefanie and Wayne Sandholtz. 2019. “The Transnational Legal Ordering of the Death Penalty.” Journal of International, Transnational, and Comparative Law 4:124-60.

Sloss, David and Wayne Sandholtz. 2019. “Universal Human Rights and Constitutional Change.” William & Mary Bill of Rights Journal 27(4): 1183-1262.

Sandholtz, Wayne. 2019. “Norm Contestation, Robustness, and Replacement.” Journal of Global Security Studies 4(1); 139-46.

Sandholtz, Wayne and Adam Feldman. 2019. “The Trans-regional Construction of Human Rights.” In Alison Brysk and Michael Stohl, eds., Contesting Human Rights. Edward Elgar. 107-24.

Sandholtz, Wayne, Yining Bei, and Kayla Caldwell. “Backlash and International Human Rights Courts.” 2018. In Alison Brysk and Michael Stohl, eds., Contracting Human Rights. Edward Elgar. 159-78.

Sandholtz, Wayne. 2017. “Domestic Law and Human Rights Treaty Commitments: The Convention against Torture.”  Journal of Human Rights 16(1): 25-43.

Sandholtz, Wayne. 2017. “Expanding Rights: Norm Innovation in the European and Inter-American Courts of Human Rights.” In Alison Brysk, ed., Expanding Human Rights: 21st Century Norms and Governance. Edward Elgar. 156–76.

Sandholtz, Wayne. 2015. “How Domestic Courts Use International Law.” Fordham International Law Journal 38(2): 595 – 637.



Wayne Sandholtz

School of International Relations
University of Southern California
Los Angeles, CA 90089-0043