Itzhak Bars
Research & Practice Areas
http://physics1.usc.edu/~bars/
Center, Institute & Lab Affiliations
 CERN, Theory Division, Visiting Professor, sabbaticals, user and frequent visitor
 Department of Physics, Princeton University, Visiting Professor, sabbatical, and frequent visitor
 Institute for Theoretical Physics, Princeton, Visiting Professor, sabbaticals, visits
 Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, visiting professor 2010, Distinguished Visiting Research Chair 20172018, and frequent visitor
Education
 Ph.D. Physics, Yale University, 5/1971

 Assistant Research Physicist, Departmental Fellow, University of California, Berkeley, 09/01/197108/31/1973

Tenure Track Appointments
 Director, CaltechUSC Center for Theoretical Physics, 09/01/1999 – 08/01/2003
 Professor, University of Southern California, 08/01/1983 –
 Associate Professor, Yale University, 07/01/1979 – 08/01/1983
 Assistant Professor, Yale University, 09/01/1975 – 06/01/1979
 Assistant Professor, Stanford University, 09/01/1973 – 08/31/1975
PostDoctoral Appointments
 Assistant Reserarch Physicist, University of California, Berkeley,
 Assistant Research Physicist, UC Berkeley,
Visiting and Temporary Appointments
 Distinguished Visiting Research Chair, Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, 05/15/201708/15/2018
 Visiting Professor, Princeton University, 10/01/201011/30/2010
 Visiting Professor, Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, 12/01/201005/31/2011
 Scientific Associate, CERN Theory Division, Switzerland, 08/01/199608/01/1997
 Member, Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, 01/01/199005/01/1990
 Visiting Professor, University of California, Santa Barbara, 08/01/198612/01/1986
 Member, Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, 01/01/198006/01/1980
 Visiting Assistant Professor, Harvard University, 09/01/197812/31/1978

Summary Statement of Research Interests
Professor Bars studies superstring theory and quantum gauge field theory and their application to the Standard Model of elementary particles, the unification of forces, cosmology and black holes. He has made various contributions to the development of the Standard Model of particles and forces, QCD, and unified gauge theories and established a relationship between string theory and twodimensional QCD. He discovered the Moyal star formulation of String Field Theory (MSFT) which provides a more efficient method for investigating nonperturbative aspects of string field theory using noncommutative geometry. He invented TwoTime Physics (2Tphysics) based on a gauge symmetry that makes position and momentum locally indistinguishable from one another and leads to deep consequences. A striking result of 2Tphysics is the unification of diverse onetime physics dynamical systems as holographic images of a single dynamical system that lives in a higher spacetime including one extra space and one extra time dimensions. In 20062008 he established that all the physics we know today, as embodied in the Standard Model of Particles and Forces, and in General Relativity, is described by a gauge fixed version of 2Tphysics field theory in 4 space and 2 time dimensions. In 2011 2Tphysics showed how to complete spacetime beyond cosmological singularities, thus leading to a new scenario for the very early universe: before the big bang the universe was in a phase of contraction and reached a big crunch, then it expanded briefly into an antigravity phase during which gravity behaved like a repulsive force, then it contracted again to a big crunch followed with a big bang thus reaching an expansion phase in which we live now. In 2015 he and his students completed the spacetime beyond the black hole singularity (not just behind the horizon). Currently he is working on the physical consequences of geodesically complete spacetimes that occur in cosmology and black holes.
Research Keywords
2Tphysics, superstring theory, standard model of elementary particles, unification of forces, cosmology, black holes, supersymmetry
Detailed Statement of Research Interests
See http://physics1.usc.edu/~bars/research.html

 See citations in Google Scholar
https://scholar.google.com/citations?user=vIyPRS8AAAAJ&hl=en
 See citations in Google Scholar

Book
 Bars, I., Terning, J. (2010). Extra Dimensions in Space and Time. New York, NY: Springer.
 Bars, I. (2005). Quantum Mechanics. Quantum Mechanics
 Bars, I., Chodos, A., Tze, C. (1985). Symmetry in Particle Physics. N.Y.: Plenum.
Book Chapter
 Bars, I. (2013). Traversing Cosmological Singularities, Complete Journeys Through Spacetime Including Antigravity. Beyond the Big Bang Springer. arXiv:1209.1068
 Bars, I. (2006). Lectures on twistors. pp. page 487.Quantum Theory and Symmetries/Heron Press. Vol. Vol.2, Lectures on twistors
Journal Article
 Bars, I., Rosner, J. (2020). Duality Between Hydrogen Atom and Oscillator Systems via Hidden SO(d,2) Symmetry and 2Tphysics. 23 pp. 234001.J.Phys.A. Vol. 53 (23), ePrint: 2001.08818 [hepth]
 Bars, I. (2018). Wavefunction for the Universe close to its beginning with dynamically and uniquely determined initial conditions. D 98 pp. 10.Physical Review. ePrint: 1807.08310 [grqc]
 Araya, I., Bars, I. (2018). Extended Rindler Spacetime and a New Multiverse Structure. (2018) 8, pp. 085009.Physical Review D. Vol. D 97 ((2018) 8,), ePrint: 1712.01326 [grqc]
 Bars, I., James, A. (2016). Physical Interpretation of Antigravity. pp. 044029.Physical Review. Vol. D93, PubMed Web Address ePrint: arXiv:1511.05128
 Araya, I. J., Bars, I., James, A. Journey Beyond the Schwarzschild Black Hole Singularity. Physical Review Letters. ePrint: arXiv:1510.03396
 Bars, I., Rychkov, D. (2014). Is String Interaction the Origin of Quantum Mechanics?. Physics Letters B. PubMed Web Address ePrint: arXiv:1407.6833
 Bars, I., Steinhardt, P., Turok, N. (2014). Dynamical string tension in string theory with spacetime Weyl invariance. 1112 pp. 901920.Fortschritte der Physik. Vol. 62 (1112), PubMed Web Address ePrint: arXiv:1407.0992
 Bars, I., Rychkov, D. Background Independent String Field Theory. Physical Review D. arXiv:1407.4699
 Bars, I., Steinhardt, P., Turok, N. (2014). Local Conformal Symmetry in Physics and Cosmology. pp. 043515043530.Physical Review. Vol. Phys. Rev. D89, PubMed Web Address arXiv:1307.1848
 Bars, I., Steinhardt, P., Turok, N. Sailing through the big crunchbig bang transition. pp. 061302.Physical Review. Vol. D89, PubMed Web Address arXiv:1312.0739
 Bars, I., Araya, I. Generalized Dualities in 1TPhysics as Holographic Predictions from 2TPhysics. pp. 066011.Physical Review. Vol. D89, PubMed Web Address arXiv:1311.4205
 Bars, I., Steinhardt, P., Turok, N. (2013). Cyclic Cosmology, Conformal Symmetry and the Metastability of the Higgs. pp. 5055.Physics Letters. Vol. B726, PubMed Web Address arXiv:1307.8106
 Bars, I., Chen, S., Steinhardt, P., Turok, N. (2012). Complete Set of Homogeneous Isotropic Analytic Solutions in ScalarTensor Cosmology with Radiation and Curvature. pp. 083542.Physical Review. Vol. D86, arXiv:1207.1940
 Bars, I., Chen, S., Turok, N., Steinhardt, P. (2012). Antigravity and the big crunch/big bang transition. pp. 278281.Physics Letters. Vol. B715, antigravity
 Bars, I., Chen, S. (2011). The Big Bang and Inflation United by an Analytic Solution. pp. 043522.Physical Review. Vol. D83,
 Bars, I., Chen, S., Turok, N. (2011). Geodesically Complete Analytic Solutions for a Cyclic Universe. pp. 083513.Physical Review. Vol. D84,
 Bars, I. (2010). Gauge Symmetry in Phase Space, Consequences for Physics and Spacetime. pp. 52355252.Int.J.Mod.Phys.. Vol. A25,
 Bars, I. (2010). Constraints on Interacting Scalars in 2T Field Theory and No Scale Models in 1T Field Theory. pp. 125025.Physical Review. Vol. D82,
 Bars, I. (2009). Relativistic Harmonic Oscillator Revisited. pp. 045009.Physical Review. Vol. D79, http://arxiv.org/abs/0810.2075
 Bars, I., Chen, S. (2009). Geometry and Symmetry Structures in 2T Gravity. pp. 085021.Physical Review. Vol. D79, http://arxiv.org/abs/0811.2510
 Bars, I., Kuo, Y. (2008). N=2,4 Supersymmetric Gauge Field Theory in 2Tphysics. Physical Review. Vol. D79 (2009) 025001, arXiv:0808.0537 [hepth]
 Bars, I. (2008). Gravity in 2TPhysics. Physical Review. Vol. D77 (2008) 125027, arXiv:0804.1585 [hepth]
 Bars, I., Quelin, G. (2008). Dualities among onetime field theories with spin, emerging from a unifying twotime field theory. Physical Review. Vol. D77 (2008) 125019, arXiv:0802.1947 [hepth]
 Bars, I. (2007). The standard model as a 2Tphysics theory. American Physical Society/SUSY06/. Vol. AIP Conf.Proc.903 (2007) 550;, hepth/0610187
 Bars, I., Kuo, Y. (2007). Field theory in 2Tphysics with N = 1 supersymmetry. Physical Review Letters. Vol. 99 (2007) 041801,
 Bars, I. (2006). The standard model of particles and forces in the framework of 2Tphysics. Physical Review. Vol. D74 (2006) 085019;, hepth/0606045
 Bars, I. (2004). Twistor superstring in 2Tphysics. Physical Review. Vol. D70 (2004) 104022;, hepth/0407239
 Bars, I. (2001). Map of Witten’s star, To Moyal’s star. pp. 436444.Physics Letters. Vol. B517 (2001), hepth/0106157
 Bars, I. (2001). Survey of Two Time Physics,. Classical and Quantum Gravity. Vol. 18 (2001) 3113;, hepth/0008164
 Bars, I., Deliduman, C., Minic, D. (1999). Lifting Mtheory to Two Time Physics. Physics Letters. Vol. B457 (1999) 275;, hepth/9904063
Research Report
 Bars, I. (2010). Hunting for TeV Scale Strings at the LHC. arXiv:1008.2379 [hepph]. Vol. arXiv:1008.2379 [hepph],
Proceedings
 Bars, I. (2011). Geodesically Complete Universe. Physics Archives. Vol. arXiv:1109.5872 [grqc],

 Honorary Member of the Turkish Academy of Sciences, 2013/12/07
 Fellow, American Physical Society, 1988/01/01
 Distinguished Visiting Research Chair, Perimeter Institute, 2017/05/152018/12/31
 Member, 19901991
 First Award by Gravity Research Foundation, 1988
 Department of Energy Outstanding Junior Investigator, 19831984
 Member, 19791980
 Sloan Research Fellowship Recipient, 19761980
 Fellowship, 19641967

Administrative Appointments
 Director of the Caltech – USC Center for Theoretical Physics, 09/01/199906/30/2003