Itzhak Bars

Professor of Physics and Astronomy
Pronouns He / Him / His Email Office SSC 216B Office Phone (213) 740-0047

Research & Practice Areas

Center, Institute & Lab Affiliations

  • CERN, Theory Division, Visiting Professor, sabbaticals, user and frequent visitor
  • Department of Physics, Princeton University, Visiting Professor, sabbatical, and frequent visitor
  • Institute for Theoretical Physics, Princeton, Visiting Professor, sabbaticals, visits
  • Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, visiting professor 2010, Distinguished Visiting Research Chair 2017-2018, and frequent visitor


  • Ph.D. Physics, Yale University, 5/1971
    • Assistant Research Physicist, Departmental Fellow, University of California, Berkeley, 09/01/1971-08/31/1973
  • Tenure Track Appointments

    • Director, Caltech-USC Center for Theoretical Physics, 09/01/1999 – 08/01/2003
    • Professor, University of Southern California, 08/01/1983 –
    • Associate Professor, Yale University, 07/01/1979 – 08/01/1983
    • Assistant Professor, Yale University, 09/01/1975 – 06/01/1979
    • Assistant Professor, Stanford University, 09/01/1973 – 08/31/1975

    PostDoctoral Appointments

    • Assistant Reserarch Physicist, University of California, Berkeley, 09/01/1971 – 08/31/1973
    • Assistant Research Physicist, UC Berkeley, 09/01/1971 – 08/31/1973

    Visiting and Temporary Appointments

    • Distinguished Visiting Research Chair, Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, 05/15/2017-08/15/2018
    • Visiting Professor, Princeton University, 10/01/2010-11/30/2010
    • Visiting Professor, Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, 12/01/2010-05/31/2011
    • Scientific Associate, CERN Theory Division, Switzerland, 08/01/1996-08/01/1997
    • Member, Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, 01/01/1990-05/01/1990
    • Visiting Professor, University of California, Santa Barbara, 08/01/1986-12/01/1986
    • Member, Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, 01/01/1980-06/01/1980
    • Visiting Assistant Professor, Harvard University, 09/01/1978-12/31/1978
  • Summary Statement of Research Interests

    Professor Bars studies superstring theory and quantum gauge field theory and their application to the Standard Model of elementary particles, the unification of forces, cosmology and black holes. He has made various contributions to the development of the Standard Model of particles and forces, QCD, and unified gauge theories and established a relationship between string theory and two-dimensional QCD. He discovered the Moyal star formulation of String Field Theory (MSFT) which provides a more efficient method for investigating nonperturbative aspects of string field theory using noncommutative geometry. He invented Two-Time Physics (2T-physics) based on a gauge symmetry that makes position and momentum locally indistinguishable from one another and leads to deep consequences. A striking result of 2T-physics is the unification of diverse one-time physics dynamical systems as holographic images of a single dynamical system that lives in a higher space-time including one extra space and one extra time dimensions. In 2006-2008 he established that all the physics we know today, as embodied in the Standard Model of Particles and Forces, and in General Relativity, is described by a gauge fixed version of 2T-physics field theory in 4 space and 2 time dimensions. In 2011 2T-physics showed how to complete space-time beyond cosmological singularities, thus leading to a new scenario for the very early universe: before the big bang the universe was in a phase of contraction and reached a big crunch, then it expanded briefly into an anti-gravity phase during which gravity behaved like a repulsive force, then it contracted again to a big crunch followed with a big bang thus reaching an expansion phase in which we live now. In 2015 he and his students completed the space-time beyond the black hole singularity (not just behind the horizon). Currently he is working on the physical consequences of geodesically complete spacetimes that occur in cosmology and black holes.

    Research Keywords

    2T-physics, superstring theory, standard model of elementary particles, unification of forces, cosmology, black holes, supersymmetry

    Research Specialties

    Detailed Statement of Research Interests


    • See citations in Google Scholar
  • Book

    • Bars, I., Terning, J. (2010). Extra Dimensions in Space and Time. New York, NY: Springer.
    • Bars, I. (2005). Quantum Mechanics. Quantum Mechanics
    • Bars, I., Nemeschansky, D., Pilch, K., Saleur, H. M., Warner, N. P. (1996). Future Perspectives in String Theory. USA, UK, Singapore: World Scientific.
    • Bars, I., Chodos, A., Tze, C. (1985). Symmetry in Particle Physics. N.Y.: Plenum.

    Book Chapters

    • Bars, I. (2013). Traversing Cosmological Singularities, Complete Journeys Through Spacetime Including Antigravity. Beyond the Big Bang Springer. arXiv:1209.1068
    • Bars, I. (2006). Lectures on twistors. (Vol. Vol.2) pp. page 487. Quantum Theory and Symmetries/Heron Press. Lectures on twistors

    Journal Article

    • Bars, I., Rosner, J. (2020). Duality Between Hydrogen Atom and Oscillator Systems via Hidden SO(d,2) Symmetry and 2T-physics. J.Phys.A. Vol. 53 (23), pp. 234001. e-Print: 2001.08818 [hep-th]
    • Bars, I. (2018). Wavefunction for the Universe close to its beginning with dynamically and uniquely determined initial conditions. Physical Review. (D 98), pp. 10. e-Print: 1807.08310 [gr-qc]
    • Araya, I., Bars, I. (2018). Extended Rindler Spacetime and a New Multiverse Structure. Physical Review D. Vol. D 97 ((2018) 8,), pp. 085009. e-Print: 1712.01326 [gr-qc]
    • Bars, I., James, A. (2016). Physical Interpretation of Antigravity. Physical Review. Vol. D93, pp. 044029. PubMed Web Address e-Print: arXiv:1511.05128
    • Araya, I. J., Bars, I., James, A. (2015). Journey Beyond the Schwarzschild Black Hole Singularity. Physical Review Letters. e-Print: arXiv:1510.03396
    • Bars, I., Rychkov, D. (2014). Is String Interaction the Origin of Quantum Mechanics?. Physics Letters B. PubMed Web Address e-Print: arXiv:1407.6833
    • Bars, I., Steinhardt, P., Turok, N. (2014). Dynamical string tension in string theory with spacetime Weyl invariance. Fortschritte der Physik. Vol. 62 (11-12), pp. 901-920. PubMed Web Address e-Print: arXiv:1407.0992
    • Bars, I., Rychkov, D. (2014). Background Independent String Field Theory. Physical Review D. arXiv:1407.4699
    • Bars, I., Steinhardt, P., Turok, N. (2014). Local Conformal Symmetry in Physics and Cosmology. Physical Review. Vol. Phys. Rev. D89, pp. 043515-043530. PubMed Web Address arXiv:1307.1848
    • Bars, I., Steinhardt, P., Turok, N. (2013). Sailing through the big crunch-big bang transition. Physical Review. Vol. D89, pp. 061302. PubMed Web Address arXiv:1312.0739
    • Bars, I., Araya, I. (2013). Generalized Dualities in 1T-Physics as Holographic Predictions from 2T-Physics. Physical Review. Vol. D89, pp. 066011. PubMed Web Address arXiv:1311.4205
    • Bars, I., Steinhardt, P., Turok, N. (2013). Cyclic Cosmology, Conformal Symmetry and the Metastability of the Higgs. Physics Letters. Vol. B726, pp. 50-55. PubMed Web Address arXiv:1307.8106
    • Bars, I., Chen, S., Steinhardt, P., Turok, N. (2012). Complete Set of Homogeneous Isotropic Analytic Solutions in Scalar-Tensor Cosmology with Radiation and Curvature. Physical Review. Vol. D86, pp. 083542. arXiv:1207.1940
    • Bars, I., Chen, S., Turok, N., Steinhardt, P. (2012). Antigravity and the big crunch/big bang transition. Physics Letters. Vol. B715, pp. 278-281. antigravity
    • Bars, I., Chen, S. (2011). The Big Bang and Inflation United by an Analytic Solution. Physical Review. Vol. D83, pp. 043522.
    • Bars, I., Chen, S., Turok, N. (2011). Geodesically Complete Analytic Solutions for a Cyclic Universe. Physical Review. Vol. D84, pp. 083513.
    • Bars, I. (2010). Gauge Symmetry in Phase Space, Consequences for Physics and Spacetime. Int.J.Mod.Phys.. Vol. A25, pp. 5235-5252.
    • Bars, I. (2010). Constraints on Interacting Scalars in 2T Field Theory and No Scale Models in 1T Field Theory. Physical Review. Vol. D82, pp. 125025.
    • Bars, I. (2009). Relativistic Harmonic Oscillator Revisited. Physical Review. Vol. D79, pp. 045009.
    • Bars, I., Chen, S. (2009). Geometry and Symmetry Structures in 2T Gravity. Physical Review. Vol. D79, pp. 085021.
    • Bars, I., Kuo, Y. (2008). N=2,4 Supersymmetric Gauge Field Theory in 2T-physics. Physical Review. Vol. D79 (2009) 025001 arXiv:0808.0537 [hep-th]
    • Bars, I. (2008). Gravity in 2T-Physics. Physical Review. Vol. D77 (2008) 125027 arXiv:0804.1585 [hep-th]
    • Bars, I., Quelin, G. (2008). Dualities among one-time field theories with spin, emerging from a unifying two-time field theory. Physical Review. Vol. D77 (2008) 125019 arXiv:0802.1947 [hep-th]
    • Bars, I. (2007). The standard model as a 2T-physics theory. American Physical Society/SUSY06/. Vol. AIP Conf.Proc.903 (2007) 550; hep-th/0610187
    • Bars, I., Kuo, Y. (2007). Field theory in 2T-physics with N = 1 supersymmetry. Physical Review Letters. Vol. 99 (2007) 041801
    • Bars, I. (2006). The standard model of particles and forces in the framework of 2T-physics. Physical Review. Vol. D74 (2006) 085019; hep-th/0606045
    • Bars, I. (2004). Twistor superstring in 2T-physics. Physical Review. Vol. D70 (2004) 104022; hep-th/0407239
    • Bars, I. (2001). Map of Witten’s star, To Moyal’s star. Physics Letters. Vol. B517 (2001), pp. 436-444. hep-th/0106157
    • Bars, I. (2001). Survey of Two Time Physics,. Classical and Quantum Gravity. Vol. 18 (2001) 3113; hep-th/0008164
    • Bars, I., Deliduman, C., Minic, D. (1999). Lifting M-theory to Two Time Physics. Physics Letters. Vol. B457 (1999) 275; hep-th/9904063

    Research Report

    • Bars, I. (2010). Hunting for TeV Scale Strings at the LHC. arXiv:1008.2379 [hep-ph].


    • Bars, I. (2011). Geodesically Complete Universe. Physics Archives.

    Cited Research

    • Bars, I. (2010). Super Yang-Mills theory in 10+2 dimensions, The 2T-physics Source for N=4 SYM and M(atrix) Theory. High Energy Physics archive at Spires. arXiv:1008.4761
    • Honorary Member of the Turkish Academy of Sciences, 2013/12/07
    • Fellow (or Equivalent) of National Society in Discipline, Fellow, American Physical Society, 1988/01/01
    • Distinguished Visiting Research Chair, Perimeter Institute, 2017/05/15-2018/12/31
    • Residency at the Institute for Advanced Study, Member-, 1990-1991
    • First Award by Gravity Research Foundation, 1988
    • NIH/NSF Career Development Award, Department of Energy Outstanding Junior Investigator, 1983-1984
    • Residency at the Institute for Advanced Study, Member, 1979-1980
    • Sloan Research Fellowship Recipient, 1976-1980
    • Fulbright Award, Fellowship, 1964-1967
  • Administrative Appointments

    • Director of the Caltech – USC Center for Theoretical Physics, 09/01/1999 – 06/30/2003
  • Committees

    • Member, Americal Physical Society Committee for the Dannie Heinemann Prize, awarded for Mathematical Physics, 05/01/2007 – 12/31/2008

    Professional Memberships

    • American Physical Society, 01/01/1969 –

    Other Service to the Profession

    • Member of APS Commitee for D.Heinemann Prize awarded for Mathematical Physics, 05/01/2007 – 12/31/2008
USC Dornsife faculty and staff may update profiles via MyDornsife.