Leningrad Codex Firkovitch B19A

The Leningrad Codex, or Leningradensis, is the oldest complete Hebrew Bible still preserved. Dating to the year 1010 C.E., the manuscript contains the whole Hebrew Bible (or Old Testament in Hebrew). In 1990 a team from the West Semitic Research Project and the Ancient Biblical Manuscript Center traveled to the Russian National Library in St. Petersburg to photograph all 1,000 pages of the Bible.

The images of the Leningrad Codex are now in the USC Digital Image Library. They were originally published in: The Leningrad Codex: A Facsimile Edition, General Editor: David Noel Freedman, Managing Editor: Astrid B. Beck, Associate Editors: Bruce E. Zuckerman and Marilyn J. Lundberg, Publication Editor: James A. Sanders,Photographers: Bruce E. Zuckerman, Kenneth A. Zuckerman, Marilyn J. Lundberg, and Garth I. Moller (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1998).

The facsimile was intended as a scholar’s edition, and most of the pages are in black and white. The sixteen illuminated pages of the Codex, however, are printed in color. At this time the facsimile edition is out of print. 

Contact Details


Administrator, School of Religion