Individual Spirits in the Mother Goddess Religion (Đạo Mẫu)

These short video clips show how a single spirit may be incarnated in different ways by women and men, older mediums and younger ones, and how the personality traits are interpreted with some variation in different possession sequences (lên đồng).


Welcome to the website for the Transnational Religion course. Our goal is to serve as a resource for students, researchers, educators and the general public seeking to understand indigenous Vietnamese religions in the homeland and diaspora.



Film and video clips, research articles and additional readings about each of these topics are located under the topic headings for the different traditions.


The research for this project was funded by the National Science Foundation (Award Number: 0752511) and the website format was funded by the Henry R. Luce Foundation.

We are grateful to Huong Ninh, Karen Fjelstad, Nguyễn Thị Hiền, Ngô Dúc Thịnh,  Phạm Quỳnh Phương, Kristen Endres and Barley Norton for their assistance in the research and their documentation of these rituals.  Additional information on all these spirits is available in Vietnamese at