Skip to main content

Itzhak Bars

Professor of Physics and Astronomy

Contact Information
Phone: (213) 740-0047
Office: SSC 216B

Personal Website
Course Information


Ph.D. Physics, Yale University, 5/1971

Postdoctoral Training

Assistant Research Physicist, Departmental Fellow, University of California, Berkeley, 09/01/1971-08/31/1973  

Academic Appointment, Affiliation, and Employment History

Tenure Track Appointments

Professor, University of Southern California, 08/01/1983-  
Director, Caltech-USC Center for Theoretical Physics, 09/01/1999-08/01/2003  
Associate Professor, Yale University, 07/01/1979-08/01/1983  
Assistant Professor, Yale University, 09/01/1975-06/01/1979  
Assistant Professor, Stanford University, 09/01/1973-08/31/1975  

Visiting and Temporary Appointments

Visiting Professor, Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, 12/01/2010-05/31/2011  
Visiting Professor, Princeton University, 10/01/2010-11/30/2010  
Scientific Associate, CERN Theory Division, Switzerland, 08/01/1996-08/01/1997  
Member, Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, 01/01/1990-05/01/1990  
Visiting Professor, University of California, Santa Barbara, 08/01/1986-12/01/1986  
Member, Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, 01/01/1980-06/01/1980  
Visiting Assistant Professor, Harvard University, 09/01/1978-12/31/1978  

PostDoctoral Appointments

Assistant Reserarch Physicist, University of California, Berkeley, 09/01/1971-08/31/1973  

Description of Research

Summary Statement of Research Interests

Professor Bars studies superstring theory and quantum gauge field theory and their application to the Standard Model of elementary particles, the unification of forces, cosmology and black holes. He has made various contributions to the development of the Standard Model of particles and forces, QCD, and unified gauge theories and established a relationship between string theory and two-dimensional QCD. He discovered the Moyal star formulation of String Field Theory (MSFT) which provides a more efficient method for investigating nonperturbative aspects of string field theory using noncommutative geometry. He invented Two-Time Physics (2T-physics) based on a gauge symmetry that makes position and momentum locally indistinguishable from one another and leads to deep consequences. A striking result of 2T-physics is the unification of diverse one-time physics dynamical systems as holographic images of a single dynamical system that lives in a higher space-time including one extra space and one extra time dimensions. In 2006-2008 he established that all the physics we know today, as embodied in the Standard Model of Particles and Forces, and in General Relativity, is described by a gauge fixed version of 2T-physics field theory in 4 space and 2 time dimensions. In 2011 2T-physics showed how to complete space-time beyond cosmological singularities, thus leading to a new scenario for the very early universe: before the big bang the universe was in a phase of contraction and reached a big crunch, then it expanded briefly into an anti-gravity phase during which gravity behaved like a repulsive force, then it contracted again to a big crunch followed with a big bang thus reaching an expansion phase in which we live now.

Research Keywords

2T-physics, superstring theory, standard model of elementary particles, unification of forces, cosmology, black holes, supersymmetry

Research Specialties



Bars, I., Terning, J. (2010). Extra Dimensions in Space and Time. New York, NY: Springer.
Bars, I. (2005). Quantum Mechanics. Quantum Mechanics
Bars, I., Nemeschansky, D., Pilch, K., Saleur, H. M., Warner, N. P. (1996). Future Perspectives in String Theory. USA, UK, Singapore: World Scientific.
Bars, I., Chodos, A., Tze, C. (1985). Symmetry in Particle Physics. N.Y.: Plenum.

Book Chapter

Bars, I. (2013). Traversing Cosmological Singularities, Complete Journeys Through Spacetime Including Antigravity. Beyond the Big Bang Springer. arXiv:1209.1068
Bars, I. (2006). Lectures on twistors. (Vol. Vol.2). pp. page 487. Quantum Theory and Symmetries/Heron Press. Lectures on twistors

Cited Research

Bars, I. (2010). Super Yang-Mills theory in 10+2 dimensions, The 2T-physics Source for N=4 SYM and M(atrix) Theory. High Energy Physics archive at Spires. arXiv:1008.4761

Journal Article

Bars, I., Rychkov, D. (2014). Is String Interaction the Origin of Quantum Mechanics?. Physics Letters B.
Bars, I., Steinhardt, P., Turok, N. (2014). Dynamical string tension in string theory with spacetime Weyl invariance. Fortschritte der Physik. Vol. 62 (11-12), pp. 901-920.
Bars, I., Rychkov, D. (2014). Background Independent String Field Theory. Physical Review D. arXiv:1407.4699
Bars, I., Steinhardt, P., Turok, N. (2014). Local Conformal Symmetry in Physics and Cosmology. Physical Review. Vol. Phys. Rev. D89, pp. 043515-043530. arXiv:1307.1848
Bars, I., Steinhardt, P., Turok, N. (2013). Sailing through the big crunch-big bang transition. Physical Review. arXiv:1312.0739
Bars, I., Araya, I. (2013). Generalized Dualities in 1T-Physics as Holographic Predictions from 2T-Physics. Physical Review. arXiv:1311.4205
Bars, I., Steinhardt, P., Turok, N. (2013). Cyclic Cosmology, Conformal Symmetry and the Metastability of the Higgs. Physics Letters. Vol. B726, pp. 50-55. arXiv:1307.8106
Bars, I., Chen, S., Steinhardt, P., Turok, N. (2012). Complete Set of Homogeneous Isotropic Analytic Solutions in Scalar-Tensor Cosmology with Radiation and Curvature. Physical Review. Vol. D86, pp. 083542. arXiv:1207.1940
Bars, I., Chen, S., Turok, N., Steinhardt, P. (2012). Antigravity and the big crunch/big bang transition. Physics Letters. Vol. B715, pp. 278-281. antigravity
Bars, I., Chen, S. (2011). The Big Bang and Inflation United by an Analytic Solution. Physical Review. Vol. D83, pp. 043522.
Bars, I., Chen, S., Turok, N. (2011). Geodesically Complete Analytic Solutions for a Cyclic Universe. Physical Review. Vol. D84, pp. 083513.
Bars, I. (2010). Gauge Symmetry in Phase Space, Consequences for Physics and Spacetime. Int.J.Mod.Phys.. Vol. A25, pp. 5235-5252.
Bars, I. (2010). Constraints on Interacting Scalars in 2T Field Theory and No Scale Models in 1T Field Theory. Physical Review. Vol. D82, pp. 125025.
Bars, I. (2009). Relativistic Harmonic Oscillator Revisited. Physical Review. Vol. D79, pp. 045009.
Bars, I., Chen, S. (2009). Geometry and Symmetry Structures in 2T Gravity. Physical Review. Vol. D79, pp. 085021.
Bars, I., Kuo, Y. (2008). N=2,4 Supersymmetric Gauge Field Theory in 2T-physics. Physical Review. Vol. D79 (2009) 025001 arXiv:0808.0537 [hep-th]
Bars, I. (2008). Gravity in 2T-Physics. Physical Review. Vol. D77 (2008) 125027 arXiv:0804.1585 [hep-th]
Bars, I., Quelin, G. (2008). Dualities among one-time field theories with spin, emerging from a unifying two-time field theory. Physical Review. Vol. D77 (2008) 125019 arXiv:0802.1947 [hep-th]
Bars, I. (2007). The standard model as a 2T-physics theory. American Physical Society/SUSY06/. Vol. AIP Conf.Proc.903 (2007) 550; hep-th/0610187
Bars, I., Kuo, Y. (2007). Field theory in 2T-physics with N = 1 supersymmetry. Physical Review Letters. Vol. 99 (2007) 041801
Bars, I. (2006). The standard model of particles and forces in the framework of 2T-physics. Physical Review. Vol. D74 (2006) 085019; hep-th/0606045
Bars, I. (2004). Twistor superstring in 2T-physics. Physical Review. Vol. D70 (2004) 104022; hep-th/0407239
Bars, I. (2001). Map of Witten's star, To Moyal's star. Physics Letters. Vol. B517 (2001), pp. 436-444. hep-th/0106157
Bars, I. (2001). Survey of Two Time Physics,. Classical and Quantum Gravity. Vol. 18 (2001) 3113; hep-th/0008164
Bars, I., Deliduman, C., Minic, D. (1999). Lifting M-theory to Two Time Physics. Physics Letters. Vol. B457 (1999) 275; hep-th/9904063


Bars, I. (2011). Geodesically Complete Universe. Physics Archives.

Research Report

Bars, I. (2010). Hunting for TeV Scale Strings at the LHC. arXiv:1008.2379 [hep-ph].

Honors and Awards

Fellow (or Equivalent) of National Society in Discipline, Fellow, American Physical Society, 1/1/1988-  
Residency at the Institute for Advanced Study, Member-, 1990-1991  
First Award by Gravity Research Foundation, 1988  
NIH/NSF Career Development Award, Department of Energy Outstanding Junior Investigator, 1983-1984  
Residency at the Institute for Advanced Study, Member, 1979-1980  
Sloan Research Fellowship Recipient, 1976-1980  
Fulbright Award, Fellowship, 1964-1967  

Service to the University

Administrative Appointments

Director of the Caltech - USC Center for Theoretical Physics, 09/01/1999-06/30/2003  

Service to the Profession


Member, Americal Physical Society Committee for the Dannie Heinemann Prize, awarded for Mathematical Physics, 05/01/2007-12/31/2008  

Professional Memberships

American Physical Society, 01/01/1969-  
Faculty may update their profile by visiting