Itzhak Bars

Professor of Physics and Astronomy

Contact Information
E-mail: bars@usc.edu
Phone: (213) 740-0047
Office: SSC 216B

Personal Website
Course Information


  • Ph.D. Physics, Yale University, 5/1971

  • Postdoctoral Training

    • Assistant Research Physicist, Departmental Fellow, University of California, Berkeley, 09/01/1971-08/31/1973  

    Academic Appointment, Affiliation, and Employment History

    Tenure Track Appointments
    • Professor, University of Southern California, 08/01/1983-  
    • Director, Caltech-USC Center for Theoretical Physics, 09/01/1999-08/01/2003  
    • Associate Professor, Yale University, 07/01/1979-08/01/1983  
    • Assistant Professor, Yale University, 09/01/1975-06/01/1979  
    • Assistant Professor, Stanford University, 09/01/1973-08/31/1975  
    Visiting and Temporary Appointments
    • Visiting Professor, Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, 12/01/2010-05/31/2011  
    • Visiting Professor, Princeton University, 10/01/2010-11/30/2010  
    • Scientific Associate, CERN Theory Division, Switzerland, 08/01/1996-08/01/1997  
    • Member, Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, 01/01/1990-05/01/1990  
    • Visiting Professor, University of California, Santa Barbara, 08/01/1986-12/01/1986  
    • Member, Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, 01/01/1980-06/01/1980  
    • Visiting Assistant Professor, Harvard University, 09/01/1978-12/31/1978  
    PostDoctoral Appointments
    • Assistant Reserarch Physicist, University of California, Berkeley, 09/01/1971-08/31/1973  

    Description of Research

    Summary Statement of Research Interests
    Professor Bars studies superstring theory and quantum gauge field theory and their application to the Standard Model of elementary particles, the unification of forces, cosmology and black holes. He has made various contributions to the development of the Standard Model of particles and forces, QCD, and unified gauge theories and established a relationship between string theory and two-dimensional QCD. He discovered the Moyal star formulation of String Field Theory (MSFT) which provides a more efficient method for investigating nonperturbative aspects of string field theory using noncommutative geometry. He invented Two-Time Physics (2T-physics) based on a gauge symmetry that makes position and momentum locally indistinguishable from one another and leads to deep consequences. A striking result of 2T-physics is the unification of diverse one-time physics dynamical systems as holographic images of a single dynamical system that lives in a higher space-time including one extra space and one extra time dimensions. In 2006-2008 he established that all the physics we know today, as embodied in the Standard Model of Particles and Forces, and in General Relativity, is described by a gauge fixed version of 2T-physics field theory in 4 space and 2 time dimensions. In 2011 2T-physics showed how to complete space-time beyond cosmological singularities, thus leading to a new scenario for the very early universe: before the big bang the universe was in a phase of contraction and reached a big crunch, then it expanded briefly into an anti-gravity phase during which gravity behaved like a repulsive force, then it contracted again to a big crunch followed with a big bang thus reaching an expansion phase in which we live now.
    Research Keywords
    2T-physics, superstring theory, standard model of elementary particles, unification of forces, cosmology, black holes, supersymmetry
    Research Specialties


    • Bars, I., Terning, J. (2010). Extra Dimensions in Space and Time. New York, NY: Springer.
    • Bars, I. (2005). Quantum Mechanics. Quantum Mechanics
    • Bars, I., Nemeschansky, D., Pilch, K., Saleur, H. M., Warner, N. P. (1996). Future Perspectives in String Theory. USA, UK, Singapore: World Scientific.
    • Bars, I., Chodos, A., Tze, C. (1985). Symmetry in Particle Physics. N.Y.: Plenum.

    Book Chapter
    • Bars, I. (2013). Traversing Cosmological Singularities, Complete Journeys Through Spacetime Including Antigravity. Beyond the Big Bang Springer. arXiv:1209.1068
    • Bars, I. (2006). Lectures on twistors. (Vol. Vol.2). pp. page 487. Quantum Theory and Symmetries/Heron Press. Lectures on twistors

    Cited Research
    • Bars, I. (2010). Super Yang-Mills theory in 10+2 dimensions, The 2T-physics Source for N=4 SYM and M(atrix) Theory. High Energy Physics archive at Spires. arXiv:1008.4761

    Journal Article
    • Bars, I., Rychkov, D. (2014). Is String Interaction the Origin of Quantum Mechanics?. Physics Letters B.
    • Bars, I., Steinhardt, P., Turok, N. (2014). Dynamical string tension in string theory with spacetime Weyl invariance. Fortschritte der Physik. Vol. 62 (11-12), pp. 901-920.
    • Bars, I., Rychkov, D. (2014). Background Independent String Field Theory. Physical Review D. arXiv:1407.4699
    • Bars, I., Steinhardt, P., Turok, N. (2014). Local Conformal Symmetry in Physics and Cosmology. Physical Review. Vol. Phys. Rev. D89, pp. 043515-043530. arXiv:1307.1848
    • Bars, I., Steinhardt, P., Turok, N. (2013). Sailing through the big crunch-big bang transition. Physical Review. arXiv:1312.0739
    • Bars, I., Araya, I. (2013). Generalized Dualities in 1T-Physics as Holographic Predictions from 2T-Physics. Physical Review. arXiv:1311.4205
    • Bars, I., Steinhardt, P., Turok, N. (2013). Cyclic Cosmology, Conformal Symmetry and the Metastability of the Higgs. Physics Letters. Vol. B726, pp. 50-55. arXiv:1307.8106
    • Bars, I., Chen, S., Steinhardt, P., Turok, N. (2012). Complete Set of Homogeneous Isotropic Analytic Solutions in Scalar-Tensor Cosmology with Radiation and Curvature. Physical Review. Vol. D86, pp. 083542. arXiv:1207.1940
    • Bars, I., Chen, S., Turok, N., Steinhardt, P. (2012). Antigravity and the big crunch/big bang transition. Physics Letters. Vol. B715, pp. 278-281. antigravity
    • Bars, I., Chen, S. (2011). The Big Bang and Inflation United by an Analytic Solution. Physical Review. Vol. D83, pp. 043522.
    • Bars, I., Chen, S., Turok, N. (2011). Geodesically Complete Analytic Solutions for a Cyclic Universe. Physical Review. Vol. D84, pp. 083513.
    • Bars, I. (2010). Gauge Symmetry in Phase Space, Consequences for Physics and Spacetime. Int.J.Mod.Phys.. Vol. A25, pp. 5235-5252.
    • Bars, I. (2010). Constraints on Interacting Scalars in 2T Field Theory and No Scale Models in 1T Field Theory. Physical Review. Vol. D82, pp. 125025.
    • Bars, I. (2009). Relativistic Harmonic Oscillator Revisited. Physical Review. Vol. D79, pp. 045009. http://arxiv.org/abs/0810.2075
    • Bars, I., Chen, S. (2009). Geometry and Symmetry Structures in 2T Gravity. Physical Review. Vol. D79, pp. 085021. http://arxiv.org/abs/0811.2510
    • Bars, I., Kuo, Y. (2008). N=2,4 Supersymmetric Gauge Field Theory in 2T-physics. Physical Review. Vol. D79 (2009) 025001 arXiv:0808.0537 [hep-th]
    • Bars, I. (2008). Gravity in 2T-Physics. Physical Review. Vol. D77 (2008) 125027 arXiv:0804.1585 [hep-th]
    • Bars, I., Quelin, G. (2008). Dualities among one-time field theories with spin, emerging from a unifying two-time field theory. Physical Review. Vol. D77 (2008) 125019 arXiv:0802.1947 [hep-th]
    • Bars, I. (2007). The standard model as a 2T-physics theory. American Physical Society/SUSY06/. Vol. AIP Conf.Proc.903 (2007) 550; hep-th/0610187
    • Bars, I., Kuo, Y. (2007). Field theory in 2T-physics with N = 1 supersymmetry. Physical Review Letters. Vol. 99 (2007) 041801
    • Bars, I. (2006). The standard model of particles and forces in the framework of 2T-physics. Physical Review. Vol. D74 (2006) 085019; hep-th/0606045
    • Bars, I. (2004). Twistor superstring in 2T-physics. Physical Review. Vol. D70 (2004) 104022; hep-th/0407239
    • Bars, I. (2001). Map of Witten's star, To Moyal's star. Physics Letters. Vol. B517 (2001), pp. 436-444. hep-th/0106157
    • Bars, I. (2001). Survey of Two Time Physics,. Classical and Quantum Gravity. Vol. 18 (2001) 3113; hep-th/0008164
    • Bars, I., Deliduman, C., Minic, D. (1999). Lifting M-theory to Two Time Physics. Physics Letters. Vol. B457 (1999) 275; hep-th/9904063

    • Bars, I. (2011). Geodesically Complete Universe. Physics Archives.

    Research Report
    • Bars, I. (2010). Hunting for TeV Scale Strings at the LHC. arXiv:1008.2379 [hep-ph].

    Honors and Awards

    • Fellow (or Equivalent) of National Society in Discipline, Fellow, American Physical Society, 1/1/1988-  
    • Residency at the Institute for Advanced Study, Member-, 1990-1991  
    • First Award by Gravity Research Foundation, 1988  
    • NIH/NSF Career Development Award, Department of Energy Outstanding Junior Investigator, 1983-1984  
    • Residency at the Institute for Advanced Study, Member, 1979-1980  
    • Sloan Research Fellowship Recipient, 1976-1980  
    • Fulbright Award, Fellowship, 1964-1967  

    Service to the University

    Administrative Appointments
    • Director of the Caltech - USC Center for Theoretical Physics, 09/01/1999-06/30/2003  

    Service to the Profession

    • Member, Americal Physical Society Committee for the Dannie Heinemann Prize, awarded for Mathematical Physics, 05/01/2007-12/31/2008  

    Professional Memberships
    • American Physical Society, 01/01/1969-  

  • Department of Physics and Astronomy
  • University of Southern California
  • 825 Bloom Walk
  • ACB 439
  • Los Angeles, CA 90089-0484