Dissertation Abstracts

Deborah Al-Najjar
Around 199l: Performing Iraq and Militarized Masculinities
“Around 199l: Performing Iraq and Militarized Masculinities” stares at artists (performers, novelists, filmmakers) who imagine militarized masculine subjects within a racial triangulation framework. I dissect that paradigm by demonstrating how this triangulation is a national trauma; it functions as sexual/racial terror. My project understands the current 2003-2010 ongoing war against Iraq by looking backward to the 1991 Gulf War, then further back to the pre Baathist Coup of the 1950s and U.S. institutional and structural operations (covert and overt). By examining what some academics, artists, and activists might perceive as benign institutions (the Peace Corps, Foreign Service, & the academy), the reader, citizen, activist, or artist would find herself as a relational, imbricated, and responsible, active participant in these institutions. The artists in this dissertation put themselves and us in positions of vulnerability and culpability. My dissertation maps onto Claire Jeane Kim’s “Racial Triangulation” a paradigm shift. If Arabs are Asians (Model Minorities and perpetual foreigners) in her formulation of Asian, Black, White, how does this formation work for textual readings? Racial triangulation as sexual/racial trauma operates through white militarized masculine subjectivity and is a sexualized/gendered violence. I couple the terms racial triangulation and militarized masculinities in order to get at the nexus that is a heterosexualized violence of empire’s formation. These artists are not collaborators with the state but art, especially art that speaks against the grain, will collide and collude with those structures. M y theoretical engagements and stakes in various fields of studies triangulate one another: African American, Arab American, Asian American studies. These fields of knowledge intersect and crosscut queer/feminist theory as I meditate on empire, occupation, and knowledge production in the academic landscape, the other “cultural imaginary” of this dissertation. My primary archive consists of art that I read as racial engagements with triangulation: performance artists Timz, Narcicyst, Paul Mooney, and Tania Hammidi; Alan Ball’s cinematic rendition of Alica Erian’s novel Towelhead (2007); Sam Greenlee’s novel Baghdad Blues (1976); Sinan Antoon’s novella I’Jaam (2007); Rajiv Joseph’s play The Bengali Tiger in the Baghdad Zoo (2010); Edward Zwick’s film The Seige (1998).
Maytha Alhassen
The Delegate : A Post-1945 Transnational History of the Grammar and Geopolitics of Black-Arab solidarity
This dissertation explores the transnational intersections between Black and Arab sociopolitical projects and metaphysical imaginaries through historical-anthropological methods while being attentive to cultural studies theories. The project begins in the post-WWII moment, tracking the legatos of the Black freedom movement with decolonizing movements in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA)[1]; ending with the encounters of the Black radical tradition and social justice movements in the what I will call Shruq and Maghreb (but is traditionally referred as MENA in Area Studies)---namely the “Arab uprisings” and the Boycott, Sanctions and Divestment (BDS) movement. It seeks to interrogate sustained and contingent solidarities between Black internationalism and the Arab diaspora, taking account of moments of dissonance, through the organizing principle of the “delegate.” Centralizing the figure of the delegate opens a window into the convergences between the Black radical tradition and MENA (the people, the place and as a site of productive sociopolitical imaginaries), convergences that while challenging the logic of US imperialism, are at times facilitated by the practices and apparatuses of empire. The role of race (racial formation of Blackness & Arabness), Islam (ummic imperative/religious praxis), gender, aesthetics and travel (delegate/delegations) in generating what Ibn Arabi calls “double vision,”[2] (also Edward Said’s “double perspective” of the “intellectual exile,” W.E.B. DuBois’s “double consciousness” and Antonio Gramsci’s “pessimism of the intellect and optimism of the will”) as a basis for forging transnational and local solidarities, will be examined. This project is concerned with operating on two disciplinary planes. In the first instance as a historical-anthropological study on the transnational solidarity politics between Black and Arab peoples through the figure of the delegate. Undercutting this study is a cultural studies exploration of modern subjecthood formation in a global racial order, looking at systems that race humans and produce and sustain the enslaved subject/properitized subject and the colonized subject. In the process of traversing these interstices, a central question arises: is there a fundamental distinction between the project of decolonization and the project of liberation[3]? Or are they conversant and overlapping “geographies of liberation” (as Alex Lubin terms it) as Cornel West suggested when he recently argued "There is a relationship between the ghetto of Gaza and the ghettos of America"?
Sophia Azeb
Ceci (n')est (pas) une arabe: Cultural Explorations of Blackness in the North African Diaspora, 1952-1979
Arabic-speaking North Africans have generally been considered to be racially and culturally distinct from sub-Saharan Africans and their descendants, both by imperial powers and North Africans themselves. However, this dissertation argues that transnational discourses of blackness have always included Arabic speakers, whose cultural production in the decolonial Cold War era utilized blackness as a language through which to make legible their respective anti-colonial and anti-racist struggles to African Americans and other African Diasporic peoples in Algeria, Egypt, France, and Britain. My project assembles an Afro-Arab cultural archive ranging from African American narratives of Algerians in 1950s Paris to the transnational jazz scene emergent in 1970s Egypt in order to demonstrate that Egyptians and Algerians have historically located themselves and been located by others in the African Diaspora within transnational and multilingual expressions of blackness. Engaging such alternate theorizations of blackness within this shared cultural production, I utilize Ethnic Studies, Post-colonial Studies and Cultural Studies methods and analytics of race and identity formation in order to examine how blackness is articulated and defined by diasporic Algerians, Egyptians, and African Americans between 1952, the year of the Officer’s Coup in Egypt, and 1979, the beginning of the U.S.S.R.’s collapse.
Crystal Baik
Unsettling Images that Bind: The Korean Militarized Diaspora (1905-1965), Critical Sensing, & the Decolonial Archive
My dissertation, entitled “Unsettling Images that Bind: The Korean Militarized Diaspora (1905-1965), Critical Sensing, & the Decolonial Archive,” interrogates the historical narratives and memories attached to the militarized making of the Korean diaspora across Asia and the Pacific (1905-1965). By examining an archive of cultural formations— ranging from early twentieth century footage of Korean anti-colonial protests to contemporary visual works by Korean transnational adoptees— I argue that visual objects are not merely aesthetic works, but political and epistemological mechanisms that unsettle discourses of American liberation and minjok, or Korean ethno-centric nationalism. Drawing upon theories of phenomenology and embodiment, cultural studies, and film studies, my interdisciplinary analysis offers the framework of critical sensing, which challenges the rigid boundary between the visible and invisible. Specifically, critical sensing describes the processes in which visual objects encounter and remediate primary sources of evidence, such as U.S. and South Korean military images, adoption papers, and state-produced films. While remediation gestures toward the preservation of the original, I argue that this process also alludes to obscured memories, social traces, and disappeared bodies excluded from dominant visual frames. Therefore, my dissertation does not only index the militarized making of a Korean diaspora, but offers a decolonized historiography capable of “sensing” memories and subjectivities deemed disposable to the intertwined projects of South Korean accelerated development, U.S. liberation, and Korean ethno-centric nationalism.
Adam Bush
Passing Notes in Class: Listening to Pedagogical Improvisations in Jazz History
Passing Notes in Class revises common narratives of jazz history through an examination of the origins of institutionalized jazz education. In the early 20th century, as segregated Black public schools grew, students began to demand a place for black culture and history in the school curriculum. Moving away from music programs that focused upon choirs and spirituals, music teachers soon established strong instrumental classes that focused upon black popular music. Too many histories of this music have positioned improvisation as something innate to the musician, the environment, or the culture and performance as isolated, spontaneous incidents. The music programs discussed here, primarily in Los Angeles, Birmingham, Chicago, and Oklahoma City, established some of the first state sponsored jazz practice sessions and, in doing so, laid fertile ground for the development of generations of black musicians and others who used the principles of improvisation in a number of career paths. Through oral histories of students, musicians, and community leaders, this dissertation listens to music history through relationships, not performance. By examining these classrooms, this dissertation positions pedagogical relationships and the community formations that developed out of them, as the basis for any performance and places these performances as just one aspect in the sound, culture, and history of jazz. The chapters focus on moments of institutionalization of musical instruction within black high schools in various cities throughout America and use these moments as windows into the role of migration, student activism, community arts, urban planning, and multi-ethnic collaboration in jazz history. “Pedagogical Improvisations” discussed within this dissertation refer to strategies that teachers employed to navigate the social conditions of music making and instruction in these institutions. By studying networks of community and apprenticeship within these various regions, this dissertation offers something akin to a territorial history of jazz. Challenging the idea that jazz is created and passed down on the bandstand, the recording studio, and the tour bus, “Passing Notes” explores how communities are formed and knowledges are passed down generationally. They are stories of how Black community leaders throughout America created musical institutions that managed to teach what were--and imagine what might be--new possibilities to simultaneously migrate and remain at home. In a sense, jazz has always vacillated between claiming (and being claimed by) its roots and its rootless-ness: it is a music of motion, of improvisation, of being ‘always complete and never finished,” as much as it is a music that reflects the unique conditions of urban culture in which it was born.
Umayyah Cable
Cinematic Activism: Palestinian Cultural Politics in the United States
This dissertation examines how and why Palestinian cinema—through films and film festivals—has emerged as a site around which Palestinians in the US organize their social justice activism and assert their diasporic identification with Palestine. I argue that the Palestinian-American community organizes itself around Palestine-themed film festivals as both a process of national identification and a strategy towards a socially just representational praxis, or what I theorize as “cinematic activism.” Through a combination of ethnographic research and media analysis, this dissertation takes the controversy around—and successes of—Palestinian film screenings in the Boston area as a site through which to understand the identitarian, pedagogical, and political work of Palestinian cinema in the United States.
Jolie Chea
Agents of War: Cambodian Refugees and the Containment of Radical
Agents of War: Cambodian Refugees and the Containment of Radical Opposition seeks to provide a critical genealogy of the “refugee” that does not reinforce or reimpose normative understandings of citizenship and belonging but rather, traces it back to a history of global racialized warfare and imperialist state violence. Drawing on Claire Jean Kim’s racial triangulation framework, Chea rejects hegemonic narratives that cast the refugee figure as “objects of rescue” and provides an analysis of the ways in which the Cambodian refugee is implicated in the American racial order and racialized vis-à-vis Black and Brown subjects. She argues that the incorporation of the Cambodian refugee into the US body politic is an extension of ongoing efforts to discipline and contain radical opposition to a US nation-building project founded on racism, genocide, war, and the colonization of racialized bodies. Located at the intersections of critical refugee studies and performance studies, Agents of War is an interdisciplinary study that examines the performativity of the “refugee” in a range of cultural works (including autobiographical documentary films and memoirs) and looks to enactments of post-war trauma and memory that posit the existence of the “refugee” as one that may challenge and disrupt US hegemony, imperialism and the logic of military intervention in the name of “freedom” and “democracy.” Ultimately, it asks: What might happen if the refugee subject acts out against that which has been imposed onto them?
Jih-Fei Cheng
Queer Visibilities: Race, Gender, and Viral Ways of Seeing
“Queer Visibilities: Race, Gender, and Viral Ways of Seeing” examines how the term “virus” came to designate an object of scientific inquiry and a mode of social organization. Drawing upon decolonial theory and queer of color critique, Cheng works backwards in time to analyze the visual and conceptual movements of the term across media platforms. Cheng examines web campaigns, documentary films, news, performances, scientific literatures, and historical accounts that illuminate HIV/AIDS in relation to the circulation of racial and gender significations that historically underpin discourses of disease. The dissertation demonstrates how virus representations generate a visual grammar by which queer subjects of U.S.-European empire forge kinships and build alliances across geographical scale and historical eras. By exploring the visual politics of viruses, Cheng bridges literatures in the humanities and sciences to propose a critical framework for understanding the development of discourses about viruses over time. “Queer Visibilities” ultimately argues that AIDS politics and queer theory can be used to identify a connection between the scientific narrative about the discovery of the first virus and concerns about race-mixing at the turn of the twentieth century.
Jennifer Declue
Specters of Miscegenation: Blood, the Law, and the Reproduction of Blackness
Jennifer’s dissertation "Specters of Miscegenation: Blood, the Law, and the Reproduction of Blackness" examines the manner in which antebellum anti-miscegenation laws surface in postbellum legislation and ideologies of blackness and whiteness by tuning in to the specter of black women’s reproduction in the making of the racialized U.S. body. By contextualizing literary and visual cultural texts that contend with anti-miscegenation violence, “mulatto” children’s rights of inheritance, interracial couple’s right to marry, and domestic spaces that merge black and white bodies with key legal cases and judicial history, this project establishes that a culture of miscegenation which both depends upon and erases black women’s reproductive bodies is central to the making of the U.S. national body. "Specters of Miscegenation" analyzes visual and literary representations of state and national legislative and judicial responses to the problematics of defining blackness, prohibiting miscegenation, and securing or refusing rights of black citizens during Reconstruction and the Jim Crow Era. This project hones in on the gray areas - the ambiguities of race, family, and community - that anti-miscegenation legislation and Jim Crow laws attempt to disentangle by defining epistemologies of blackness through symbolics of blood. I examine the shadow system of sexualized racial violence that produced “mulatto” children, allowed white vigilantism, and overlooked extralegal interracial couplings, which engender what I describe as a culture of miscegenation through laws, custom, and culture. The visual and literary texts examined in this project illustrate how generations of sexual violence, subsequent familial ties, and racially indistinct collectivities blur putatively immiscible bodies that often escapes dominant narratives of race within the U.S. "Specters of Miscegenation" examines the complex of secrecy, shame, and violence imposed upon the figure of the mulatto who threatens white supremacy’s claim to blood purity in the film "Pinky" (1949, the novel "Clotel" (1853) and Kara Walker’s "Bureau of Refugees" series (2008. This project also examines miscegenation by discussing collectivities of black and white people that together attain freedom by using the group to defy systemic racial and gendered violence in Sherley Anne Williams's novel "Dessa Rose"(1986) and Alfonso Cuaron's film "Children of Men"(2006). "Specters of Miscegenation" grounds analyses of literary and visual texts, which grapple with miscegenation and racial purity, by discussing the categorical obfuscation of black women’s reproduction in significant legal cases that shape ideologies of American blackness and whiteness, in order to support the contention that black women’s reproductive bodies haunt key civil rights decisions, the U.S. cultural imaginary of the antebellum and Jim Crow south, and the contradictory constitution of our supposed racially distinct national body.
Treva Ellison
Towards A Politics of Perfect Disorder: Carceral Geographies, Queer Criminality and Other Ways to Be
In the past two decades, there has been an increasing amount of scholarly attention given to the types of state-sanctioned, extralegal and interpersonal violence that cohere and are reproduced along the axes of gender and sexuality. This project adds to this body of knowledge by examining how gender and sexuality are implicated in the expansion of the U.S carceral state. I explore how and under what conditions the expansion of rights for racialized sexual and gendered subjects has been one strategy for expanding carceral geographies and re-trenching anti-black racism. Spanning the fields of Geography, Critical Ethnic Studies, LGBT and Queer Studies, and Critical Prison Studies, Towards of Politics of Perfect Disorder looks at the ways that LGBT activists and organizations, state workers, politicians, and everyday people in Los Angeles struggled over both the meanings and function of LGBT identity and politics, as well as state power and capacity, around the issues of surveillance, policing, and incarceration. Beginning in the post-war period, this study centers Los Angeles as a both a critical site for the articulation of LGBT and queer politics as well as critical node in California's and the United State's carceral geographies, or the set of places that are productive of and formed through policing, incarceration, confinement and surveillance. Using a mixed methods approach that includes legal and policy analysis, archival research, and oral history, Towards of Politics of Perfect Disorder provides an analysis of the ways that race, gender, and sexuality are key terms in the reproduction of state capacity and penal democracy. This account demonstrates how official state and legal policies around LGBT identity and embodiment developed through a dialectic of power between state actors, politicians, intellectuals, activists, and advocates. I argue that local and national reforms aimed at protecting gendered and sexual subjects both challenge and consolidate carceral geographies at the local, state and national levels. LGBT activism has cohered visibility for particular racialized, sexual and gendered subjects. Earlier LGBT political activism that has heralded such visibility was undergirded by an analysis of policing and surveillance as sources of homophobic violence. Over time, however, the incorporation of gender and sexuality centered reforms into the penal system has tended to obscure the productive relationship between the logics of the policing, surveillance and incarceration and those of gender and sexual normativity. This dynamic instead supports the re-organization of carceral geographies, rather than their decomposition. I propose perfect disorder as the political archive of other ways to be: the thought, action, and knowledge production of LGBT and queer Angelenos that presents and preserves a political praxis that seeks to disorganize carceral logics and infrastructures. By putting these organizing and advocacy efforts in spatial and historical context, I also hope to tell a story about local transformations of LGBT and queer activism that look beyond marriage equality as the preeminent LGBT and queer civil rights struggle. I also hope to intervene on discussions about what to do with LGBT prisoners that consistently posit the expansion of penal infrastructure as a viable and harm-reducing policy solution.
Ryan Fukumori
The Motley Tower: Higher Education, the Urban Crisis, and the History of Race in Postwar Los Angeles
This dissertation takes as its area of inquiry the systemic incorporation of Japanese Americans and Mexican Americans as collegiate students, faculty, and curricular and research subjects in postwar Los Angeles. Far from being disinterested edifices of instruction, Los Angeles collegiate institutions were embedded within the political, economic, social, and cultural landscape of Southern California. The increasing prominence of research institutions within the regional political economy—in particular, the University of California at Los Angeles—ensured that such institutions were directly implicated in California’s postwar topographies of racial and class disparity. Capital investment in postsecondary education exacerbated the structural inequities and waves of social unrest that came to be popularly known in the 1960s as the “urban crisis.” UCLA administrators and progressive activists, in turn, embraced their respective visions of “ethnic studies” as the school’s activation of research capacities in order to solve the crisis. However, knowledge projects like “Asian American History” and “Chicano/a History” could be formally homologous to the structures and strictures of academic governmentality, even as they sometimes proffered a contentious or oppositional relationship to the academy itself. “The Motley Tower” employs archival research and documentary analysis to trace this complex process of negotiation and contestation from the end of World War II to 1978.
Analena Hassberg
To Survive and Thrive: Food, Justice, and Citified Sovereignty in South LA
Food is central to all human life and as such can function to unify disparate populations. Yet, despite our shared needs for clean air, water and food, the poor and people of color suffer disproportionately from environmental degradation and globally oppressive food systems. Here in the United States, low-income urban neighborhoods are generally characterized by an absence of fresh food and green space, and an inundation of fast food, liquor and other toxic substances like drugs, pollution and violence. In South Los Angeles, this phenomenon has contributed to a culture of slow death in the form of obesity, hypertension, diabetes, and a host of other preventable food-related illnesses. Analena Hope’s dissertation To Survive and Thrive: Food, Justice, and Citified Sovereignty in South LA uses food as a lens to examine urban development, racialized health outcomes, and self-determination in South Los Angeles from the post-WWII period to the present. She demonstrates how differential neighborhood food access and racialized health outcomes are symptoms of structural inequality within LA’s built urban environment. To Survive and Thrive also situates food at the forefront of revolutionary survival strategies in low-income urban communities of color, where repressive material conditions necessitate alternative ways of being, living, and eating at various scales.
Jessica Lovaas
Fostering Neoliberalism: the politics and power of the child welfare system in Southern California
What happens when we view the child welfare system not as a cluster of concrete agencies concerned with child protection but as a vast political apparatus that uses child removal as a form of social control? This dissertation seeks to situate Southern California’s child welfare system within a long history of racialized and gendered child removal practices in the United States, and within more recent shifts in neoliberal policies and practices. I argue that we cannot fully understand the power and purpose of the foster care system in Los Angeles without understanding how it interacts with and is impacted by border militarization and deportation practices, welfare and employment policies, marriage equality organizing and legislation, municipal policing and surveillance practices, and the growth of the prison industrial complex. In particular, this dissertation looks at the multiple ways through which the child welfare system in Southern California helps achieve market goals, transmit neoliberal values, and delineate notions of the normative family and ideal citizen-subject. Combining fieldwork, ethnography, interviews, and media analysis I analyze the localized ways in which foster youth, parents, social workers, and advocates experience this system, and the creative ways in which many challenge its boundaries, restrictions, and underlying impositions.
Nic Ramos
Worthy of Care: Community Medicine, Emergency Medicine, and Public Hospital Construction in Post War Los Angeles
Framed by demands from both community groups and government leaders to involve the poor in lifting themselves out of poverty, the medical community responded in-kind with two new Post War medical disciplines – Community Medicine and Emergency Medicine – designed to lift the sickly into healthy lifestyles. The figuring of the Watts Riots as symptomatic of larger social and economic crises welded poverty and sickness together in these forms of comprehensive care by their central placement in a public hospital built as a remedy to the riots (King General Hospital). Implying that good health is a civic requirement for economic independence, I argue that King General Hospital constituted an experiment in crafting flexible, durable, and mobile forms of medicine applicable in a wide array of racial and economic contexts in the service of managing the life of populations more efficiently.
Anthony Rodriguez
Heretical Scripts: Sylvia Wynter's Early Intellectual Life in the Decolonial Atlantic, 1947 - 1984
In the early twenty-first century increasing attention has been brought to the critical thought of cultural critic and Black Studies professor Sylvia Wynter. Wynter's work from the 1960s onward has consistently advocated the need for cultural workers, scholars, activists, and educators to challenge the overrepresentation of modern, Western, anti-Black/anti-Native, liberal, bioeconomic conceptions of “the human.” “Heretical Scripts” is a sociobiographical account of Wynter's early life as a Black woman intellectual participating in historic critical intellectual formations that emerged in Britain, the West Indies, and the United States from the 1950s and to the early 1980s. Traversing her early scholarship as a West Indian student in London, her work as a theater/radio actress, her fiction-writing, her interventions as a scholar-activist, and her extensive collection of published/unpublished essays and public lectures, “Heretical Scripts” unearths a rich trans-Atlantic tradition of Black/Third World/feminist social criticism that is at the root of the kinds of questions that have directed Wynter's thought and writings over the past six decades. At the center of this intellectual history are key moments in the twentieth-century “decolonial Atlantic world” that are the cornerstone for Wynter's critique of the disciplinary division of the Humanities, and her critical archeological study of the politicocultural foundations of modern European conquest/settler colonialism, nation-building, and their epistemological impact on the making (and remaking) of modern, Western, liberal, bourgeois, bioeconomic conceptions of “the human.” “Heretical Scripts” both advances on recent interdisciplinary engagements with Wynterian thought in the early twenty-first century, and also contributes to broader efforts in American Studies and Ethnic Studies to document the history of collective and collaborative decolonizing intellectual activity among the various structurally subordinate populations of the twentieth and early twenty-first century Atlantic world.
Yushi Yamazaki
Buried Strands: Struggles For Justice Among Japanese Immigrants and Japanese Americans in Hawaii and California, 1885-1941
Yushi Yamazaki's dissertation expands and deepens the transnational dimension of the social movements organized by Japanese immigrants and their descendants in the U.S. in the late nineteenth century and the first half of the twentieth century. With an analysis of capitalist transformation of the globe through colonialism and imperialism, he contextualizes the resistance against capitalist exploitation among Japanese immigrants and Japanese Americans as a significant part of the history of the Pacific from below. In the first chapter, it examines the way in which the early labor strikes in Hawaii's sugar plantations in 1880s and 90s have vestiges of peasant rebellions that had erupted in 1870s in Japan. Second chapter also looks into the background of immigrants, especially from Okinawa. The inception of Okinawan immigration was deeply embedded in the context of Okinawan struggle to protect their collectively managed forestland, led by Noboru Jabana and Kyuzo Toyama. Third chapter focuses on different ideologies that underpinned labor organizing in several locales and examines the emergence of multi-ethnic organizing. Nationalism was at work when 1909 Oahu sugar strike tried to solidify cooperation within Japanese community. Anarchism drew many Japanese immigrants and sojourners such as Shusui Kotoku, Sakutaro Iwasa, Shigeki Oka, Tetsugoro Takeuchi, and an Okinawan, Shusei Aniya, to San Francisco and IWW's unions. This chapter ends with a comparison between Takeuchi's labor organizing in Fresno in early 1910s and the multi-ethnic organizing of Mexicans and Japanese in Oxnard in 1904. The fourth chapter is the convergence of the previous chapters. It demonstrates how Okinawan youth group, Sen Katayama's group in New York, and Nisei (Kibei included) like Karl Yoneda, who had grown thrust and thirst for social justice within mixed tradition of Anarchism and else, came together and got involved in multi-ethnic labor organizing in Communist movement in California. His dissertation ponders on what "transnational(-ism)" and "internationalism" meant for their practice on the ground.
  • Department of American Studies & Ethnicity
  • University of Southern California
  • 3620 South Vermont Avenue
  • Kaprielian Hall 462
  • Los Angeles, California 90089-2534